By Eric Rosenberg
Whereas unicast routing determines a direction from one resource node to at least one vacation spot node, multicast routing determines a direction from one resource to many locations, or from many assets to many locations. We survey multicast routing tools for whilst the set of locations is static, and for whilst it's dynamic. whereas many of the tools we evaluation are tree dependent, a few non-tree equipment also are mentioned. We survey effects at the form of multicast timber, hold up limited multicast routing, aggregation of multicast site visitors, inter-domain multicast, and multicast digital deepest networks. We concentrate on uncomplicated algorithmic ideas, and mathematical types, instead of implementation point protocol information. Many traditionally very important equipment, no matter if no longer at present used, are reviewed to provide standpoint at the evolution of multicast routing.
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Extra info for A Primer of Multicast Routing
Now suppose another receiver node x also wants to receive packets from s over an SPT. Once x also learns s, it too can send a join towards s. A series of joins again propagates towards s, where (s, g) state is created and the (s, g) OIL is updated at each node visited by these joins.
Various schemes for this are surveyed by Bejerano, Busi, Ciavaglia, Hernandez-Valencia, Koppol, Sestito, and Vigoureux . One method, applicable to source trees, is to specially construct two trees, rooted at the same source node s and spanning the same set of receiver nodes. The two trees have the following property: if a node (other than the source) fails, then for any other node n there is a path, on one of the trees, from s to n. The method described in  has two main steps. First, a subgraph Ψ is created which contains two node disjoint paths from the root to every other node.
This gives other routers on the subnet the opportunity to override the prune by sending a join request; any join request received by p on interface i during this period cancels the prune. The core is a single point of failure. If it fails, the core tree may be partitioned into a set of disjoint trees. To ensure that each of these disjoint trees can operate as a separate CBT, the CBT protocol allows additional nodes to be speciﬁed as backup cores. Each router that can serve as a core gets a priority value.
A Primer of Multicast Routing by Eric Rosenberg